Features of the Indian Constitution

The constitution is a fundamental law of a country that reflects the fundamental principles on which the government of the country is based. In this article, learn some of the interesting features of the Indian Constitution.

The bulkiest constitution of the world

The Indian constitution is one of the bulkiest constitution of the world, comprising of 395 articles, 22 parts and 12 schedules. So far the constitution underwent 100 amendments (28 May, 2015).

Rigidity and flexibility

The Indian constitution is combination of rigidity and flexibility, which means some parts of it can be amended by the Parliament by a simple majority, whereas some parts require a two-third majority as well as not less than one-half of the state legislatures.

Parliamentary system of government

The Indian constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government,i.e., the real executive power rests with the council of ministers and the President is only a nominal ruler(Article 74).

Federal system with a unitary bias

The Indian constitution described India as a ‘Union of States’ (Article 1), which implies that Indian federation is not the result of any agreement among the units and the units cannot secede from it.

Fundamental rights and fundamental duties

The Indian constitution provides an elaborate list of Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India, which cannot be taken away or abridged by any law made by the states (Article 12?35). Similarly, the constitution also provides a list of 11 duties of the citizens, known as the Fundamental Duties (Article 51A).

Directive principles of state policy

The Indian constitution mentions certain Directive Principles of State Policy (Article 36?51) which that government has to keep in mind while formulating new policy.


The constitution makes India a secular state by detaching from religious dogmas (Forty-second Amendment).

Independent judiciary

The constitution provides an independent judiciary (Article 76) which ensures that the government is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and acts as a guardian of the liberties and fundamental rights of the citizens.

Single citizenship

The Indian constitution provides a single citizenship for all the people residing different parts of the country and there is no separate citizenship for the states (Article 5?11).

Bicameral legislatures

The Indian constitution provides a bicameral legislatures at centre consisting of Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (House of the People) (Article 79).

Emergency powers

The constitution vests extraordinary powers, known as Emergency Powers in the President during emergencies out of armed rebellion or external aggression or due to failure of constitutional machinery in the state (Article 352?360).

Special provisions for minorities

The constitution makes special provisions for minorities, Scheduled castes, Scheduled Tribes, etc. by granting them certain special rights and provisions.

Basically those are some of the interesting features of Indian constitution. Moreover, the constitution also has many other features such as, Panchayati Raj, Rule of Law, Provisions for Independent Bodies, etc. which are very unique in nature.